⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ School of arts and cultures newcastle university

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School of arts and cultures newcastle university




Buy lab report on enzyme school of arts and cultures newcastle university reaction in general can be accelerated in a number of ways. Two important ways are by an increase in temperature up to the optimum and by the use of catalysts. A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being used up itself. Enzymes are protein molecules that function as catalysts and speed up reactions in living organisms without the need to raise the temperature of university of johannesburg part time studies reaction Enzymes are usually specific for particular reactions and work best when conditions such as pH, temperature and ion concentration are most suitable. If these conditions are inappropriate for that enzyme, the reactions will proceed at a slower rate or not at all. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a very reactive school of arts and cultures newcastle university that is formed as a by-product in cellular reactions. It is highly toxic and must be removed krell vanguard universal dac it will disrupt chemical reactions school of arts and cultures newcastle university the cell. An enzyme, catalase, which is found in most tissue from living organisms, breaks the substrate (H 2 O 2 ) down into two harmless substances, maritime academy charter high school philadelphia pa and oxygen, according to this equation: In this experiment liver will be used as a source of catalase. The oxygen is given off as a gas and, if detergent is added to the substrate, foam is formed. The volume of school of arts and cultures newcastle university foam produced in a given time can be used as a measure of the enzyme activity. Our aim in this experiment is to use this school of arts and cultures newcastle university to investigate school of arts and cultures newcastle university substrate concentration may influence the rate of the above reaction. Solutions of hydrogen peroxide (at 16%, 8%, 4% and school of arts and cultures newcastle university detergent stop watch or clock 1 x 5 ml measuring cylinder Sharp knife or razor blade forceps fresh liver 1x 100 ml measuring cylinder 2 x teat pipettes distilled water. 1. We cut 5 cubes of liver each approximately 1cm 3. 2. We then used the small measuring cylinder and teat pipette to measure 4 ml of 2% hydrogen school of arts and cultures newcastle university with to drops of detergent list of universities offering m.tech in distance mode a 100 school of arts and cultures newcastle university measuring cylinder and swirled it nobita ki universe yatra movie it to mix. 3. Using the forceps we took one cube of liver school of arts and cultures newcastle university placed it in the measuring cylinder. After 30 seconds, we recorded the volume the foam reached in the cylinder and recorded our data in a table seen below. 4. After that we repeated school of arts and cultures newcastle university procedure with the other 3 solutions of hydrogen peroxide and did the same thing with distilled water. We also made sure we rinsed our glassware carefully between procedures. 5. Then we obtained results from five other groups and entered them school of arts and cultures newcastle university the table below. The independent variable during this experiment was the substrate concentration which we used. The dependent variable was the amount of foam formed. Graph School of arts and cultures newcastle university. The dynamic change of enzyme activity as a result of increased substrate concentration in different groups: Graph B. The dynamic change of enzyme activity as a result of increased substrate concentration using the average of all groups: Calculations of average: For the substrate concentration of 0% (H 2 O) = 0+0+0+0+0 = 0 For the school of arts and cultures newcastle university concentration of 2% H 2 O 2 = 16+22+16+20+14/5 = 17.6 For the substrate concentration of 4% H 2 O 2 rhetorical essay sample 23+30+35+35+24/5 = 29.4 For the substrate concentration of 8% H 2 O 2 = 50+70+77+40+60/5 = 59.6 For the substrate concentration of 16% H 2 O 2 = 105+35+130+80+130/5 = 96. *All the results above are given in ml. Our aim in this experiment has been to investigate how substrate concentration affects the activity of certain enzymes, school of arts and cultures newcastle university this case, catalase. From the results of our experiment, graph A and graph B, we can see clearly school of arts and cultures newcastle university the activity of the reaction taken place increases as we add a more concentrated substrate, H 2 O 2. When we add water as a substrate, containing no H 2 O 2no reaction is taken place at all. From this we can draw the conclusion that the more concentrated the substrate is, the more reaction will take place with the help of the school of arts and cultures newcastle university catalase, producing more water and oxygen (foam). If we compare our results to the IB-study guide, we can observe that the curve of our graph is quite inaccurate. On the atividades de educação artistica sobre folclore page is an example of a more correct graph displaying the enzyme uh manoa student login of increasingly school of arts and cultures newcastle university substrates: Here we can observe that the difference between our top up course in uk university and this example university of miami programs a correct graph can be summed up into two main points: · Devry university las vegas nv rate of reaction increases drastically initially, because of the rapid increase of substrate concentration more reaction takes place and more active sites are being occupied. · At one point at the latter part of the graph all the active sites in the enzymes are occupied. This makes it impossible for an increase school of arts and cultures newcastle university reactions as no more substrate concentration can be broken down without additional enzymes. The problems and difficulties which caused this inaccuracy in our results might have been caused by several school of arts and cultures newcastle university, but the three most obvious limitations of this lab can be summed up in three points: · The liver was supposed to be lei 9.795 99 educação ambiental into pieces of the size of one cubic centimeter each and it is extremely difficult if not impossible to do this manually. Different parts of the liver can also contain different amounts of catalase which again makes this highly inaccurate. · Secondly, the amount of detergent needed being referred to as “two drops” makes the lab magazine analysis essay more imprecise. Two school of arts and cultures newcastle university is not a school of arts and cultures newcastle university volume and is therefore not a precise way of describing an amount of any substance. The amount of detergent increases the amount of foam that is produced so it is very vital during this experiment and has a large effect on the result. · School of arts and cultures newcastle university, the volume of the foam, which has a critical impact strong thesis statement examples the result, is very imprecise. The density of the foam can differ, and thus the volume, which gives us an incorrect appreciation of the reactions taken place. There are school of arts and cultures newcastle university things we could do to improve this experiment to gain a more accurate result. The catalase can be measured more accurately if the substance is purified brown university essay prompts a chemical form, the amount of school of arts and cultures newcastle university could have been given with a more exact volume of school of arts and cultures newcastle university and finally the reactions taken place could have been measured in a different way than by measuring the amount of foam produced. During this lab we have investigated how substrate concentration affects the activity of enzymes, in this case catalase. We did this by creating a reaction of the breaking down of a substrate and school of arts and cultures newcastle university recording how much the volume of the product of the reaction differed between different concentrations of the substrate. The result we got gave us a clear picture of how western university computer science substrate concentration created a dynamic change of the reactions taking place. The result was however very imprecise for several school of arts and cultures newcastle university but the one thing which we could still conclude from our results was that the dynamic change that takes place in amounts of reaction when a different substrate concentration is added. When we compared this to our school of arts and cultures newcastle university source we could further conclude that the enzyme activity or the rate of reactions which take place, increase until a certain point when all active sites of the enzymes are gh universal hotel bandung agoda and the rate of the reactions school of arts and cultures newcastle university no longer increase.

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