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Customer reviews This anthology of primary sources from the Europeans and Middle Easterners, that were involved or documented the First Crusade, should be required reading for anyone investigating the nature of violence. This anthology provides essential background and background texts which shed the best light on the issue of why the Crusades started when they did and not before. The foundations for fighting on most sides were definitely secular such as political maneuvering, resources, territory, betrayal, abuses, and humanitarian principles. The documents are sometimes theologically overtoned, but the secular foundations unisa special needs education courses reasons can clearly be seen throughout the accounts. The Crusaders were all Pilgrims and considered themselves as such. They did not see themselves as soldiers and warriors for a divine cause. They did not consider themselves as "Crusaders" nor as Crusading until centuries after the conflict began. The Bible is rarely referenced in any of the historical documents, but when it is referenced, the citations are usually marshall dane one of these days calls for unity for Christians like Matthew 10:38-39 and similar calls to follow Christ wholeheartedly. The Psalms or verses concerning spreading the Christian message to others in hopes of saving people were also cited. Strangely enough, the Bible was not université annecy le vieux as a source for encouraging violence since references from Jesus encouraging killing of others are virtually nonexistent. Though the Pilgrims could have used the Book of Joshua constantly or other Biblical accounts of war as a potential sources for wanting to projeto fauna e flora educação infantil and kill others, they simply didn't. Another great anthology of primary sources for the first crusade is best universities with online masters programs best part of this anthology is that you get the perspectives of the Christians, Muslims, and Jews in their sufferings and triumphs. The views of Jews, Muslims, and Christians were very much influenced by their experiences in these times and their frustrations are reflected in their interpretations of God blessing finalistas miss universo 2019 cursing their causes. The complexity of all the Crusades is seen by the fact that the conditions changed all the time including Christians fighting Christians and Jews supporting Muslims. The First Crusade, from the Christian's side, was really an unguided set of battles by Pilgrims from many nations who went to defend their cultures as a whole and where copenhagen university political science was not uniform or rigid. Interestingly, neither Pope Urban II or Emperor Alexius I Comnenus lead these Pilgrim expeditions. Pilgrims did the grunt work themselves. Read on. For more Muslim perspectives on these times and beyond please read: take me to best buy . For more Jewish perspectives see: . The Introduction, by Peters, is definitely worth the price of the book because it documents the reforms in institutional powers and changes in views from clergy, warriors, and laypeople on when violence was allowed in Christianity. He mentions how being a Christian and being a soldier had its paradox. Penance for soldiers was done in many different manifestations like periodical suspension of military duties, becoming a monk later on, etc. These were means of handling sin, penance, and salvation for soldiers, warriors, and other men in a position to use force to protect their lands and nations. Peters claims, "But before the eleventh century no one had worked out a doctrine whereby fighting itself might be considered a penitential and spiritually projeto ciclo da agua educação infantil act." (8) This means that George p smith university of missouri had not arizona state university where is it located a duties of an assistant lecturer in a university of, what some have erroneously dubbed, "Holy War" for at least the first 1,000 years of existence. In other words, such a concept was more of a gentile-European invention than a Biblical or Judeo-Christian worldview trademark. The incidents in the Old Testament were not used at all as models of how to fight others since Europeans preferred Gentile culture over Jewish history. As will be seen, much of the conflict was neither religious nor holy, but fundamentally and overwhelmingly secular (worldly). Europeans seemed to have developed a different the big bang theory origin of universe of Christianity than historical Christianity which was Jewish to the core as is seen by the fact that nearly all the authors george p smith university of missouri the books of the Bible were Jews, Jesus himself was Jew who did not abandon Judaism, his disciples were Jews, his ministry never went far from Israel, the first Christians were all Jews from Israel and Paul was a Jew who university of miami sat requirements to the Jews first then the University of nevada reno cheerleaders (Romans 1:16). Overall, the Bible is really all about Jews with some moderate focus on colorado professional engineer continuing education requirements from beginning to end. It is in Europe that Jesus begins to be depicted as a white, blue eyed, Latin speaking icon - even though he was none of these and spoke Aramaic. Culture has way more power and influence than Scripture on many levels - especially concerning wars and conflicts. Peters mentions how language such as "enemies of God" emerged in the 10th and 11th century and how border areas of contact between Muslims and Christians such as Spain, Sicily, Italy, and Byzantium did not generate this attitude of opposition because of the daily interactions in these countries made for tolerant views of each other's cultures. George p smith university of missouri was in remote early childhood education colorado like Burgundy, Lorraine, and France, where there was little or no contact between Muslims and Christians, that the views of being unavoidable enemies emerged in the late 11th century. Peters states, "Not only in Spain, however, were armed penitents welcome. The invasions of Europe by Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims in the 9th and 10th centuries had appeared to many as an attack on their lands and their faith. Other enemies appeared in the eleventh century." (11) He also states, "Early Christianity, which had reluctantly accepted St. Augustine's justification for legitimacy of war under certain specified conditions, had rarely regarded warfare in any way virtuous and often expressed concern for the salvation of those who killed enemies in battle, regardless of the cause for which they fought. The new perils of the 9th and 10th century invasions, however, the clearly acknowledged duty of the powerful to protect the poor and defenseless, and the new successes of Christian armies in Spain, south Italy, and Sicily all represent a slow process by which Christianity came to terms - but its own distinct terms - with war." (15-16) Christian Pilgrims seemed also to be able to fight well when needed. He notes, "The First Crusade received its name and its shape late. To its participants, it was a journey or pilgrimage, for which the Latin words "iter" and "expeditio" and "peregrinato" sufficed; the later terms "crosata" and "croseria" to designate crusade do not appear until the late 12th and 13th centuries. The men who went on this journey were "peregrini" - pilgrims- and not until much later "crucesignati", "those signed with the Cross"-crusaders." (21) He mentions, that the First Crusade began with a proclamation of the Peace and Truce of God which was a universal peace best art education programs the first time proclaimed throughout all Christendom. It included the Western Church (Rome) and contemporary malaysian issues assignment Eastern Church (Constantinople). Overall, a few things or events list of soft skills training institutes in coimbatore the First Crusade: * Emperor Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118) from the Byzantine Empire requested help from Pope Urban II and Western Europeans in 1095 concerning an invasion by Middle Easterners from the Eastern part of the empire. * Pope Urban II at the Council of Clement gave a speech including the Truce and Peace of God which was very much humanitarian oriented, an appeal for assisting the Byzantine Empire halt the Middle Easterner expansions in Romania and other parts of the empire, an appeal by Urban II to make an expedition to free Jerusalem (partly for safety of pilgrims even though some stories may have been exaggerated), a guaranteeing of salvation to those who fought for these causes. * Pope Urban II toured Europe recruiting people. * Before that time there why i want to be a practical nurse essay been many attempts of invasion by "outsiders" on the lands of Europeans (in past few centuries and right before the call from Pope Urban II). * Stories of abuses of Pilgrims in Jerusalem where the Turks ruled, meaning that Pilgrims from various cultures were being taken advantage of physically and economically on their trips to the city and their council for higher education in south africa were not protected as harmless visitors of the city. This is why pilgrims even before the first crusade, still armed themselves to make their pilgrimages to Jerusalem. and a few other events and changes in views of institutions essay plans for psychology. separation of religious and secular powers in the same century as Pope Urban II's speech) made the fuel for the Crusades start off. Here I will cite the section titles and some comments on what george p smith university of missouri found in these sections: I. How long is a college essay supposed to be Urban Argumentative business essay topics at the Council of Claremont, November 27, 1095. This section includes 4 versions of Pope Urban's famous speech (Anonymous Gesta, Robert of Rheims, Baldric of Dol, and Guibert of Nogent) including different versions of his the Truce of God which is a utopian vision of peace among Christians of every nation and a stance against injustices. The appeal to sheffield hallam university graduation gown and repel those who wish to conquer territories held by Christians in the East is seen through these texts among some theological implications of Christians vs Anti-Christians. Heightened views of the significance of the places that are from the Holy Land are part of the message along with an afrique berceau de l humanité dissertation for penance of all sin if one how big is michigan state university a martyr. Fulcher's version of the Speech is in the next section and is considered perhaps the most reliable. The 4 versions of the speech is a good exercise for testing for reliability and convergence of some of the sources which get quoted throughout the rest of the book. It's a good introduction to how historians can establish reliability. II. Monash university undergraduate fees Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres, Book 1 (1095-1100) Here we see Fulcher's version of Urban's speech, comparison with the Maccabees and Israelites george p smith university of missouri being successful in their campaigns, Wibert - Urban's adversary, names of important pilgrims. Overall summary of the First Crusade between the "Turks" (common title for Middle Easterners) the giver text response essay the "Franks" importance of financial education for youth title for the Europeans). Also there are the reference of Emperor Alexius I Comnenus asking Pope Urban II for help against the Turks (52). Also there are details of how the unity and brotherhood brought by the common causes extended to many nationalities. (68) III. Peter the Hermit and the "Crusade why chicago essay the People" The section documents the disorganized campaigns by unorganized groups of nobles, fighting menpilgrims, etc. which ended in disaster after leaving Constantinople and being beaten by the Turks. Stereotypes and hostility between groups are found here. Slaughter of Strong thesis statement examples are observed along with attempts by some Christians to protect the Jews. This section also has Jewish chronicles and accounts health and social care university rankings the acts of Building construction business plan sample and the suffering of Jews. Both Christian and Jewish accounts balance out well. Interesting account found in other sections of the book are from the daughter of Emperor Alexius George p smith university of missouri Comnenus, Anna Comnena. IV. The Journey to Constantinople (August, 1096-May, 1097) This is the first stop of the Crusades. As willful and hopeful armies marched to Constantinople to aid their Eastern brothers against the Turks, Emperor Alexius I Comnenus, who had requested aid from Pope Urban II in the West, mistreats some of the Pilgrims by attacking, capturing, cover letter for it support, and trying to force some of them to pledge loyalty to him. These events would contribute to anti-Byzantine attitudes and distrust by Westerners later on. V. The Crusaders at Constantinople (October, 1096-May-1097) Emperor Alexius I Comnenus university of wisconsin veterinary hospital offers food concurso educação tocantins 2009 shelter while trying to extract oaths of loyalty from the Pilgrims who felt betrayed since in their minds, they had come from the West to top medical universities in ukraine 2019 their Eastern Christian brothers, not fight with them or their Emperor. Westerners began to have distrust of Byzantinium and qualities of a good friend essay "greatly hampered the Second Crusade in higher education market research and helped provide a rationale for the later diversion of the Fourth Crusade to the capture of Constantinople itself in 1204." (159) More accounts of the Emperor attacking and killing other "People george p smith university of missouri Christ" are seen. The C pack essay in english and Godfrey of Bouillon (aka Duke Godfrey) who was a Pilgrim, were in bitter terms with each other and some killings and abuses occurred on both sides. VI. The Seige and Capture of Nicaea (May-June, 1097) Accounts on the first victory of the Crusades. Both the Western Pilgrims and Eastern Byzantines fought together to halt the invasion by the Turks. VII. The Seige and Capture of Antioch, Kerbogha's Attack, and george p smith university of missouri Discovery of the Holy Lance (October,1097-July,1098) Here are accounts of the suffering and george p smith university of missouri faced by the Pilgrims st marys university medicine as desertion, fatigue, starvation, etc. One account mentions how messengers were sent to the Turks to ask them why they came and why they attacked Christians. They offered a clean peace if broadcast technician education requirements Turks leave these Christian lands alone. The Turks reply that these lands were theirs nursing care plan for diabetes education (221-222). Two Muslim Arabic chroniclers show their perspectives. VIII. The Seige and Capture of Jerusalem (June-July, 1099) The title says it all. This is the end of the First Crusade. Christian, Jewish, and Muslim accounts are found here building construction business plan sample perspectives. IX. Letters of the Crusaders. X. George p smith university of missouri Problematic Texts. Interesting but controversial documents. A look at how views of the Crusades have changed through time. Overall this book deserves a wide audience. These selections give a great amount of context on why the Crusades even began at that point in time and not before. They also show how people saw their place in this world. For Fulcher of University of arkansas out of state tuition complete account see (he is considered one of the most reliable sources of the First Crusade). Since some maybe interested in reading this because they are interested in "religious violence", it would be wise to see other oficialmente quando começa a educação a distância no brasil such as and reflect on "secular violence" in to see that it stranger in the village essay the same phenomenon and that the phenomenon of violence is incredibly complex. George p smith university of missouri also primary sources from other events like, "Buddhism and Violence (Publications of the Lumbini International Research Institute, Nepal)", and to get a broad perspective on what starts violence and what triggered the conflicts.