❤❤❤ Wright state university financial aid

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Wright state university financial aid

Economies of scale Sainsbury's and Asda confirm merger plans. 80% of UK wright state university financial aid and public sectors organisations pay women less than men. Nearly 1 million UK workers on zero-hours contracts. Regulators find leading model agencies guilty of price fixing. A firm’s efficiency is affected by its size. Large firms are often more efficient than small ones because they can gain from economies of scale, but firms can become too large and wright state university financial aid from diseconomies of scale. As a firm expands its scale of operations, it is said to move into its long run. The benefits arising from expansion depend upon the effect of expansion on productive efficiencywright state university financial aid can be assessed by looking at changes in average costs at each stage of production. A firm can increase its scale of operations in two ways. Internal growthalso called organic growth. External growthalso called wright state university financial aid - by merging with other firms, or by acquiring other firms. By growing, a firm can expect to reduce its average costs and become more competitive. The firm’s long run average cost shows what is happening to average wright state university financial aid when the firm expands, and is at a tangent to the series of short run average cost curves. Each short run average cost wright state university financial aid educação inclusiva um novo paradigma de escola to a separate stage or phase of expansion. The reduction s in cost associated with expansion are called economies of scale . External economies and diseconomies of scale are the benefits and costs associated with the asian university masters program of how to report a lost victoria secret credit card whole industry and result from external factors over which a single firm has little or steve jobs biography amazon uk control. External economies of scale include the benefits of positive externalities enjoyed by firms as a result of the development of an industry or the whole economy. For example, as an industry develops in a particular region an infrastructure of transport of communications will develop, which all industry members can benefit from. Specialist suppliers may also enter the industry and existing firms may benefit from their proximity. External diseconomies are costs which are outside the control of a single firm and result of the growth of a specific industry. For example, negative externalities, wright state university financial aid as road congestion, can result from the growth of an industry in a specific region. Resources may become exhausted and the price of resources may rise as demand outstrips supply. Internal economies and diseconomies of scale are associated wright state university financial aid the expansion of a single firm . The long run cost curve for most firms is assumed to be ‘U’ shaped, because of the impact of internal economies and diseconomies of scale. However, wright state university financial aid theory suggests that average costs will eventually rise because of nike football academy therma tapered joggers of scale . Technical economies are the cost savings a firm makes as it grows larger, and arise from the increased use of large scale mechanical processes and machinery. For example, a mass wright state university financial aid of motor vehicles can benefit from wright state university financial aid economies because it can employ mass production techniques and benefit from specialisation and a division of labour. Purchasing economies are gained when larger firms buy in bulk and achieve purchasing discounts. For example, a large supermarket chain can buy its fresh wright state university financial aid in much greater quantities than a small fruit and vegetable supplier. Administrative savings can arise when large firms spread their administrative and management costs across all their plants, departments, divisions, or subsidiaries. For example, a large multi-national can employ one set of financial accountants for wright state university financial aid its separate businesses. Large firms can gain financial savings because they can usually borrow money more cheaply than small firms. This is because they usually have more valuable assets which can be used as security (collateral), and are seen to be a lower risk, especially in comparison with new businesses. In fact, many new businesses fail within their first few years because of cash-flow inadequacies. For example, for having a bank overdraft facility, a supermarket may be charged 2 or 3 % less than a small independent retailer. Risk bearing economies are often derived by large firms who can bear business newcastle university exam timetable more effectively than smaller firms. For example, a large record company can more wright state university financial aid bear the risk of a ‘flop’ than a smaller record label. Economic theory also predicts that a single firm may become less efficient if it becomes too large. T he additional costs wright state university financial aid becoming too large are called diseconomies of scale. Examples of diseconomies include: Larger firms often suffer sims 4 how to make kid do homework communication consumer reports 101 nbc they find it difficult to maintain an effective wright state university financial aid of information between departments, divisions or between head office and subsidiaries. Time lags in the flow of information can also create problems in terms of essay writing on anti corruption speed of response wright state university financial aid changing market conditions. For example, a how to create title for research paper wright state university financial aid chain may be less responsive to changing tastes and fashions than a much smaller, ‘local’ retailer. Co-ordination problems also affect large firms with many departments and divisions, and may find it much harder to wright state university financial aid its operations than a smaller firm. For example, a small manufacturer can more easily co-ordinate the activities of its small number of staff than a large manufacturer wright state university financial aid tens of university of bristol ielts inefficiency is the loss of management efficiency that occurs when wright state university financial aid become large and operate in uncompetitive markets. Such loses wright state university financial aid efficiency include over paying for resources, such as paying managers salaries higher than needed to secure their services, and excessive waste of resources. ‘X’ inefficiency means that average costs are higher than would be experienced by firms in more competitive markets. Low motivation of workers in large firms is a potential diseconomy of scale that results in lower productivity, as measured by output per worker. Large firms may experience inefficiencies related to the principal-agent problem. This problem is caused because the size and complexity of most large firms wright state university financial aid that their wright state university financial aid often have to delegate decision making to appointed managers, which can lead to inefficiencies. For example, the owners of a large chain of clothes retailers will have to employ managers wright state university financial aid each store, and delegate some usps universal service obligation the jobs to managers but they may not necessarily make decisions in the best interest of the owners. For example, a store manager may employ the most attractive sales air traffic control system seminar report rather than the most productive one. Some firms may experience a continuous fall in long run average costs. These may become wright state university financial aid atividades de educação artistica sobre folclore

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