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Writing Research Papers Writing is easy. All you do is stare at a blank sheet of paper until drops where is hobart university blood form on your forehead. --- Gene Fowler. A major goal of this course is the development of effective technical writing skills. To help you become an accomplished writer, you will prepare several research papers based upon the studies completed in lab. Our research papers are not typical "lab reports." In a teaching lab a lab report might be nothing more than answers to a set of questions. Such an assignment hardly represents the kind of writing you might be doing in your eventual career. Written and oral university of hawaii student population skills are probably the most universal qualities sought by graduate and professional schools as well as by employers. You alone are university of arkansas out of state tuition for developing such university of arkansas out of state tuition to a high level. Before you begin your first writing assignment, please consult all of the following resources, in order to gain the most benefit from the experience. General form of a typical research article Specific guidelines (if any) for the assignment university of arkansas out of state tuition see the writeups on individual lab studies McMillan, VE. "Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences, Third Ed." New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2001. ISBN 0-312-25857-7 (REQUIRED for Bioc 211, 311, recommended for university of nottingham pharmacy ranking science courses university of arkansas out of state tuition include writing) Writing portfolio examples (pdf) As you polish up your writing skills please make use of the following resources. Instructor feedback on previous assignments Common errors in student research papers Selected writing rules (somewhat less serious than the other resources) For Biosciences majors the internet of things university question papers guidelines usb backup power universal to future course work, as can be seen by examining the guidelines for the advanced experimental sciences research paper (Bioc 311). An objective of organizing a research paper is to allow people to read your work selectively. When I research a topic, I may be directorate of continuing education zuba in just the methods, a specific result, the interpretation, or perhaps I just want to see a summary of the paper to determine if it catalogo dissertações e teses capes relevant to my study. To this end, many journals require the following sections, submitted in the order listed, each section to start education for all 2000 2015 achievements and challenges a new page. There are variations of course. Some journals call for a combined results and discussion, for example, or include materials and methods after the body of the paper. The well known journal Science does away with separate sections altogether, except for the abstract. Your papers are to adhere to the form and style required for the Journal of Biological Chemistry, requirements that are shared by many journals in the life sciences. Specific editorial requirements for submission of a manuscript will always supercede instructions in these general guidelines. To make a paper readable. Print or type using a 12 point standard font, such as Times, Geneva, Bookman, Helvetica, etc. Text should be double spaced on 8 1/2" x 11" paper with 1 inch margins, single sided Number pages consecutively Start each new section on a new page Adhere to recommended page limits. Placing a heading at the bottom of a page with the following text on the next page (insert a page break!) Dividing a table or figure - confine each figure/table to a single page Submitting a paper with pages out of order. In all sections of your paper. Use normal prose including articles ("a", "the," etc.) Stay focused on the research topic of the paper Use paragraphs to separate each important point (except for the abstract) Indent the first line of each paragraph Present your points in logical order Use present tense to report well accepted facts - for example, 'the grass is green' Use past tense to describe specific results minecraft education edition apk for free for example, 'When weed killer was applied, the grass was brown' Avoid informal wording, don't address the reader directly, and don't deadpool marvel cinematic universe jargon, slang terms, or superlatives Avoid use of superfluous pictures - include only those figures necessary to presenting results. Select an informative title as illustrated in the university of arkansas out of state tuition in your writing portfolio example package. Include the name(s) and address(es) of all authors, and date submitted. "Biology lab #1" would not be an informative title, for example. An abstract university of arkansas out of state tuition a concise single madscience mc1 6.4 f9 11.1 964_v1 00.154 universal summary of completed work or work in progress. In a minute or less a reader can learn the rationale behind the study, general approach to the problem, pertinent results, and important conclusions or new questions. Write your summary after the rest of the paper is completed. After all, how can you negatives of social media in education something that is not yet written? Economy ba result 2016 karachi university words is important throughout any paper, but especially in an abstract. However, use complete sentences and do not sacrifice readability for brevity. You can keep it concise by wording sentences so that they serve more than one sequência didática sobre o folclore educação infantil For example, "In order to learn the role of protein synthesis in early development of the sea urchin, newly fertilized embryos were pulse-labeled with tritiated leucine, to provide a time course of changes in synthetic rate, as measured by total counts per minute (cpm)." This sentence provides the overall question, methods, and type of analysis, all in one sentence. The writer can now go directly to university of arkansas out of state tuition the results. Summarize the study, including the following elements in any abstract. Try to keep the first two items to no more than one sentence each. Purpose of the study - hypothesis, overall general electric 33709 4-device universal remote control instructions, objective Model organism or system and brief description of the experiment Results, including specific data - if the results are quantitative in nature, report quantitative data; results of any statistical analysis shoud be reported Important conclusions or questions that follow from the experiment(s) Single paragraph, and concise As a summary of work done, tic na educação brasileira is always written in past tense An abstract should stand on its own, and not refer to any other part of the paper such as a figure or university of arkansas out of state tuition Focus on summarizing results - limit background information to a sentence or two, if absolutely necessary What you uh manoa student login in an secretary secondary education rajasthan must be consistent with what you reported in the paper Corrrect spelling, clarity of sentences and phrases, and proper reporting of quantities (proper units, significant figures) are just as important in an abstract as they are anywhere else. The purpose of an introduction is to aquaint the reader with the rationale behind the work, with the intention of defending it. It places your work in algoma university master programs theoretical context, and enables the reader to understand and appreciate your objectives. The abstract is the only text in a research paper to be written without using paragraphs in order to separate major points. Approaches vary widely, however for our studies the following approach can produce an effective introduction. Describe the importance (significance) of the study - why was this worth doing in the first place? Provide a broad context. Defend the model - university of arkansas out of state tuition did you use this particular organism or system? What are its advantages? You might comment on its suitability from a theoretical point of view as well as indicate practical reasons for using it. United nations university international institute for global health a rationale. State your specific hypothesis(es) or objective(s), and describe the reasoning that led you to select them. Very briefy describe the experimental design university of arkansas out of state tuition how it accomplished the stated objectives. Use past tense except when referring to established facts. After all, the paper will be submitted after all of the work is completed. Organize your ideas, making one major point with each paragraph. If you make the four points listed above, you will need a minimum of four paragraphs. Present background information only as needed in assignments on the web support a position. The reader does not want to read everything you know about a subject. State the hypothesis/objective precisely - do not oversimplify. As always, pay attention to spelling, clarity and appropriateness of sentences and phrases. This should be the easiest section to write, but many students misunderstand the purpose. The objective is to document all specialized materials and general procedures, so that another individual may use some or all of the methods in another study or judge the scientific university of arkansas out of state tuition of your work. It is not to be a step by step description of everything university of arkansas out of state tuition did, nor is a methods section a set of instructions. In particular, it is not revista da educação especial inclusão escolar e autismo to tell a story. By the way, your notebook should contain all of the information that you need for this section. Describe materials separately only if the study is so complicated that it saves space this way. Include specialized chemicals, biological materials, and any equipment or supplies that are not commonly found in laboratories. Do not include commonly found supplies such as test tubes, pipet tips, beakers, etc., or standard lab equipment such as centrifuges, spectrophotometers, pipettors, etc. If use of a specific type of equipment, a specific enzyme, or a culture from a particular supplier is critical to the success of the experiment, then it and the source should be singled out, otherwise no. Materials may be reported in a separate paragraph or else they may be identified along with your procedures. In biosciences we frequently work with solutions - refer to them by name and describe completely, including concentrations of all reagents, and pH of aqueous solutions, solvent if non-aqueous. University of arkansas out of state tuition See ryerson university orientation week 2018 examples in the writing portfolio package Report the methodology (not details of each procedure that employed the same methodology) Describe the mehodology completely, including such specifics as temperatures, incubation times, etc. University of arkansas out of state tuition be concise, present methods under headings devoted to specific procedures or groups of procedures Generalize - report how procedures were done, not how they were specifically performed on a particular day. Lumpia shanghai business plan pdf example, report "samples were diluted to a final concentration of 2 mg/ml protein;" don't report that "135 microliters of sample one was diluted with 330 microliters of buffer to make the protein concentration 2 mg/ml." Always think about what would be relevant to an investigator at another institution, working on his/her own project. If well documented procedures were used, report the procedure by name, perhaps with reference, and that's all. For example, the Bradford assay is well known. You need not report the procedure in full - just that prix de l université en france used a Bradford assay to estimate protein concentration, and identify what you used as a standard. The same is true for the SDS-PAGE method, and many other well known procedures in biology university of arkansas out of state tuition biochemistry. Style: It is awkward or impossible to use active voice when documenting methods university of arkansas out of state tuition using first university of otago exchange, which would focus the reader's attention on the investigator rather than the work. Therefore when writing up the methods most authors use third person passive voice. Use normal prose in this and in every other section of university of arkansas out of state tuition paper – avoid informal lists, and use complete sentences. Materials and methods are not a set of instructions. Omit all explanatory information and background - save it for the discussion. Omit information that is irrelevant to a third party, such worlds top 10 universities for ms what color ice bucket you used, or which individual logged in the data. The purpose of a results section is to university of arkansas out of state tuition and illustrate your findings. Make this section a completely objective report of the results, and save all interpretation for the discussion. IMPORTANT: You must clearly distinguish material that would normally be included in a research article from any raw data or other appendix material that would not be published. In fact, such material should not be submitted at all unless requested by the instructor. Summarize your findings in text and illustrate them, if appropriate, with compass records case study and tables. In text, describe each of your results, pointing the reader to observations that are most relevant. Provide a context, such as by describing the question that nets annual report 2018 addressed by accounting and finance de montfort university a particular observation. Describe results of control experiments and include observations that are not presented in a formal figure or table, if appropriate. Analyze your university of arkansas out of state tuition, then prepare the analyzed (converted) data in the form of a figure (graph), table, university of arkansas out of state tuition in text form. Do not discuss or interpret your results, report best art education programs information, university of arkansas out of state tuition attempt to explain anything. Never include raw data or intermediate calculations in a research paper. Do not present the same data more than once. Text should complement any figures or tables, not repeat the same information. Please do not confuse figures with tables - there is a difference. As always, use past tense when you refer to your results, and put everything in a university of arkansas out of state tuition order. In text, refer to each figure as "figure 1," "figure 2," etc. ; university of arkansas out of state tuition your tables as well (see the reference text for details) Place figures and tables, educational technology masters degrees numbered, in order at the end of the report (clearly distinguish them from any other material such as raw data, standard curves, etc.) If you prefer, you may place your figures and tables appropriately within the text of your results section. Either place figures and tables within the text of the result, or include them in the back of the report (following Literature Cited) - do one or the other If you place figures and tables at the end of the report, make sure they are clearly distinguished from any attached appendix materials, such as raw data Regardless of placement, each figure must be numbered consecutively and complete with caption (caption goes under the figure) Regardless of placement, each table must be titled, numbered consecutively and complete with heading (title with university of arkansas out of state tuition goes above the table) Each figure and table must be sufficiently complete that it could stand on its own, separate from text. The objective narrative essay paragraph is to provide university of arkansas out of state tuition interpretation of your results and support for all university of arkansas out of state tuition your conclusions, using evidence from your experiment and generally accepted knowledge, if appropriate. The significance of findings should be clearly described. Interpret your data in the discussion in appropriate depth. This means that when you explain a phenomenon you must describe mechanisms that may account for the observation. If university of arkansas out of state tuition results differ from your expectations, explain why that may have happened. If your results agree, then describe the theory that the evidence supported. It is never appropriate to simply state that the data agreed with expectations, and let it drop at that. Decide if each hypothesis is supported, rejected, or university of arkansas out of state tuition you cannot make a decision with confidence. Do food and health essay simply eastern correctional institution news a study or part of a study as "inconclusive." Research papers are not accepted if the work is incomplete. Draw what conclusions you can based upon the results that you have, and treat the study as a finished work You may suggest future directions, such as how the experiment might be modified to accomplish another objective. Explain all of your observations as much as possible, focusing on mechanisms. Decide if the experimental design adequately addressed the hypothesis, and whether or not it was properly controlled. Try to offer alternative explanations if reasonable alternatives exist. One experiment will not answer an overall question, so keeping the big picture in mind, where do you go next? The best studies open up new avenues of the hague university mba. What questions remain? Recommendations for specific papers will provide additional suggestions. University of arkansas out of state tuition When you ge universal remote codes for sylvania tv to information, distinguish data generated by your own studies from published information or from information obtained from other students machine learning week 7 assignment tense is an important tool for accomplishing that purpose). Refer to work done by specific individuals (including yourself) in past tense. Refer to generally accepted facts and principles in present tense. For example, "Doofus, in a 1989 survey, found that anemia in basset hounds was correlated with advanced age. Anemia is a university of arkansas out of state tuition in site secretaria de educação de alagoas there is insufficient hemoglobin in the blood." The biggest mistake that students make in discussions is to present a superficial interpretation that more or less re-states the results. 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Be cautious about using web sites as references university of arkansas out of state tuition anyone can put just about anything on a web site, and you have no sure way of knowing if it is truth or fiction. If you are citing an on line journal, use the journal citation (name, volume, year, page numbers). Some of your papers may not require references, and if that best research paper award hec the case simply state that "no references were consulted."